Research and Progress of Low-Carbonization Planning

In order to mitigate climate change, traditional rational planning theories and methods have begun to transform to innovative planning theories and methods for coping with climate change. Although related research and innovation have just begun, low-carbon planning has played an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Among them, the United Kingdom and Japan are at the forefront of scientific research in the world, and China and India, as large developing countries, have also achieved positive research results.

——Research on the economics of low-carbon development model. In 2006, the British government commissioned Nicholas Storn to complete the “Review of the Economics of Climate Change” (Review of the Economics of Climate Change). The study believes that climate change is an indisputable fact. If humans continue to develop according to the current model, the global temperature may rise by 2~3℃ or even more by the end of the 21st century, which will cause the global economy to fall by 5%~10%. The proportion of GDP, while poor countries will exceed 10%. If you want to avoid excessive losses from climate change, you need to take immediate measures to ensure that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is controlled at 450~550ppm by 2050. The cost of reducing emissions to achieve this goal is only about 1% of GDP. about. In order to achieve this goal, the world needs to reduce all carbon emissions by 50% from current levels. This means that industrialized countries need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 60% from 1990 levels.

——Research on low-carbon city model. James Hansen, director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA), in a paper “Earth in Crisis” in Science recommends that all coal-fueled products should be phased out by 2030. Factories, before these factories are closed, levy emissions taxes and prohibit the construction of new factories unless they are equipped with devices that capture and separate factory CO2 emissions.

——Research on low-carbon city planning. In order to achieve low-carbon city and community development, planning should make a difference on different scales. ① There is a certain positive correlation between the scale of the city and the carbon emissions of residents’ lives. As the size of the city increases (in the empirical evidence, the number of urban population is used to characterize urban planning), the per capita carbon emissions of the new population will be higher than the stock population. This shows that urban growth will lead to higher levels of carbon emissions (Glaeser and Kahn, 2008). ②There is a significant negative correlation between the degree of follow-up of urban land use and urban residential carbon emissions. The stricter the restrictions and constraints imposed by urban planning on the use of land, the lower the carbon emission level of residents’ lives. For example, high-density development can effectively reduce carbon emissions. But another possibility is that planning restrictions on land use may prevent people from the most effective allocation of land resources, leading to the development of cities that are not conducive to environmental protection (Glaeser and Kahn, 2008).

——Research on low-carbon city lifestyle planning. Glaeser and Kahn found through the study of 66 metropolitan areas in the United States that there is a corresponding law between urban development and residential carbon emissions in the United States, that is, families with the same income level, living in the suburbs of the city will generate more carbon than living in the center of the city. Emissions, this is because the suburban housing density is low and the area is large. At the same time, suburban residents are more likely to choose private cars to travel, and the distance from the place of employment is relatively long. This difference is even more pronounced in large cities (Glaeser and Kahn, 2008).

——Research on low-carbon city planning policies. Japanese scholar Masao Aoki (2001) believes that the design and construction of the system must integrate the system, economy, culture, history, and current value status of the region. The British Dalun Educational Planning has made corresponding arrangements in terms of energy, construction, transportation, and municipal administration. The spatial planning adds governance, cooperative organizations, policy inheritance, legal and regulatory frameworks, and technical analysis and design. The Mayor of London and the Greater London Authority have made breakthroughs in guiding the development of energy planning in the Dalunjiao metropolitan area, and adjusted them in February 2008, paying special attention to heating and power networks. The London Plan advocates a wide range of methods to promote a decentralized energy system, especially in terms of renewable and low-carbon energy. These new policies are: ①Reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Including the use of less energy, efficient supply of energy, and the use of renewable energy. ②To achieve a reduction in total carbon dioxide emissions. For example, before 2010, the reduction rate of carbon dichloride in Lunjiao will be reduced by 15% compared with 1990, and the reduction rate will reach 30% by 2025. ③Assess energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions. ④ Each district should identify existing and promote new decentralized energy (heating, cooling, and electricity) networks. ⑤ New development projects should comply with energy system standards and be able to connect with local decentralized networks, etc. In 2007, the United Kingdom published the “Planning Policy Statement: Planning and Climate Change-Supplement to Planning Policy Statemen! 1”, striving to implement measures related to climate change into land use planning. Incorporate climate change factors into the regional spatial strategy, consider reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the regional planning level, and formulate clear carbon emission targets; consider sea level changes, food crises, and spatial patterns under thermal effects, combined with climate change, and consider buildings, infrastructure, and Supporting planning of service facilities; in the process of providing new housing, employment, services, and infrastructure, improve resource use efficiency and reduce carbon emissions; examine the location of development areas, the number of existing cars and building density, and the infrastructure Circumstances, consider the reusable low-carbon energy supply, vigorously develop the public transportation system, encourage the promotion of cycling and walking, and reduce unnecessary car traffic; ensure moderate carbon emissions in newly developed areas; promote new sustainable lifestyles ; Promote public participation and encourage communities to contribute to climate change; encourage adjustment of economic structure and promote the use of new technologies; ensure the full expression of sustainable strategies in terms of land mixed use, energy supply, planning and management strategies, etc. In the same year, the British government published the Planning Policy Suatement: Planning and Climate Change-Analysis Report of Consullation Respon-se5. In 2008, it further published the Impact Asesment of the Planning Policy Statement: Planning and Climate Change.

——Research on Low-Carbon City Planning and Governance. Related studies have found that local governments are the most important platform for promoting the development of low-carbon industries and achieving low-carbon economic and social development. In the process of responding to global climate changes, especially in the process of low-carbon city construction, the planning ability of city governments is very important, and the corresponding urban planning institutional framework is especially worthy of study. Low-carbon city planning needs to focus on the overall urban elements, rather than fragmented individual elements; need to emphasize the synergy between the government, enterprises, and individuals, rather than unilateral efforts; need to respect the basis of urban development, rather than in different cities Promote the same planning concept.

——Research on urban planning for mitigating climate change. Carter et al. (2010) took the western United States as the research object and conducted research on sustainable development, smart growth tools, reshaping development models, and coping with climate change in the western mega-regions. Condon et al. (2009) developed urban planning land use policies and decision support systems at the local and regional levels based on climate change mitigation.